The Role of Psychological Safety and Psychological Empowerment on Intrapreneurial Behavior towards Successful Individual Performance: A Conceptual Framework

Authors

  • Mahmoud Ahmad Mahmoud Department of Business Administration, Northwest University Kano, Nigeria
  • Shuhymee Ahmad College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Changlun, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Donny Abdul Latief Poespowidjojo College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Changlun, Kedah, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11113/sh.v10n3.1287

Keywords:

Psychological safety, psychological empowerment, intrapreneurial behavior, individual performance, middle managers, Nigeria.

Abstract

Though a substantial number of researches have been documented between psychological safety, psychological empowerment and individual level performance, the manner through which these relationships transpires is scarcely studied, principally as regards to individual performance of middle managers in medium enterprises. To address this shortfall and to expound further on these relationships, several researchers proposed mediating variables to better explain the relationship between these variables. Accordingly, this paper proposes intrapreneurial behavior as a mediating variable on the psychological safety, psychological empowerment and individual level performance relationships of middle managers in Nigerian medium enterprises. Psychological safety, psychological empowerment and intrapreneurial behavior relationships have been deliberated, followed by the intrapreneurial behavior and middle manager successful performance relationship and lastly the proposed mediating role of intrapreneurial behavior on the psychological safety, psychological empowerment and individual level performance relationships.

Author Biographies

Mahmoud Ahmad Mahmoud, Department of Business Administration, Northwest University Kano, Nigeria

LECTURER AT NORTHWEST UNIVERSITY KANO

PhD CANDIDATE AT UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA

Shuhymee Ahmad, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Changlun, Kedah, Malaysia

Associate Professor at School of Business Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Donny Abdul Latief Poespowidjojo, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Changlun, Kedah, Malaysia

Senior Lecturer at School of Business Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia

References

Agwu, M. O. (2014). Issues, Challenges And Prospects Of Small And Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Port-Harcourt City. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 3(1), 101–114. http://doi.org/10.14207/ejsd.2014.v3n1p101

Ahmad, N., Nasurdin, A., & Zainal, S. (2012). Nurturing Intrapreneurship To Enhance Job Performance: The Role Of Pro-Intrapreneurship Organizational Architecture. Journal of Innovation Management in Small and Medium Enterprise, 2012, 1–9. http://doi.org/10.5171/2012.868880

Akinyele, S. T. (2007). A Critical Assessment Of Environmental Impact On Workers Productivity in Nigeria. Research Journal on Business Management, 1(1), 50-61.

Alge, B. J., Ballinger, G. a, Tangirala, S., & Oakley, J. L. (2006). Information Privacy In Organizations: Empowering Creative And Extra Role Performance. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 221–232. http://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.221

Amabile, T. M. (1988). A Model Of Creativity And Innovation In Organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10, 123–167. http://doi.org/Article

Åmo, B. W. (2010). Corporate Entrepreneurship And Intrapreneurship Related To Innovation Behaviour Among Employees. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 2(2), 144–158. http://doi.org/10.1504/IJEV.2010.034819

Antoncic, B., & Hisrich, R. D. (2003). Clarifying the Intrapreneurship Concept. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10(1), 7–24. http://doi.org/10.1108/14626000310461187

Antoncic, B., & Zorn, O. (2004). The Mediating Role Of Corporate Entrepreneurship In The Organizational Support-Performance Relationship : An Empirical Examination. Management Global Transitions, 2(1), 5–14.

Baer, M., & Frese, M. (2003). Innovation is Not Enough: Climates For Initiative And Psychological Safety, Process Innovations, And Firm Performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(1), 45–68. http://doi.org/10.1002/job

Bakar, M. S., & Mahmood, R. (2014). Linking Transformational Leadership And Corporate Entrepreneurship To Performance In The Public Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia. Advances in Management & Applied Economics, 4(3), 109–122.

Bakar, M. S., Mahmood, R., & Lucky, E. O. (2015). The Mediating Role Of Intrapreneurial Orientation Between Leadership Style, Knowledge Sharing Behaviour And Performance Of Malaysian Academic Leaders: A Conceptual Framework. Sains Humanika, 4(1), 17–22.

Bakar, M. S., Mahmood, R., Ramli, A., & Saad, R. M. (2016). Knowledge Sharing Behaviour And Performance Of Academic Leaders: Mediating Role Of Corporate Entrepreneurship. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 24(6), 2028–2035. http://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2016.24.06.23624

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction In Social The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction In Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, And Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. http://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173

Bell, N. E., & Staw, B. M. (1989). People as Sculptors Versus Sculpture: The Roles Of Personality And Personal Control In Organizations. In Handbook Of Career Theory , 232.

Bello, S. M. (2012). Impact of Ethical Leadership on Employee Job Performance. International Journal of Business and Social Science 3(11), 228–37.

Blau, P. M. (1967). Exchange and Power In Social Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., & Janssen, J. (2013). Fostering Intrapreneurial Competencies Of Employees In The Education Sector. International Journal of Training and Development, 17(3), 210-220.

Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1997). Task Performance And Contextual Performance: The Meaning For Personnel Selection Research. Human Performance, 10(2), 99–109. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_3

Bosma, N., Stam, E., & Wennekers, S. (2010). Intrapreneurship-An international study. EIM Research Report, 3-29.

Bosma, N., Wennekers, S., Marible, G., Amorós, J. E., Alona, M., & Singer, S. (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Special report on entrepreneurial employee activity. GEM, Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA), 7–72.

Brown, S. P., & Leigh, T. W. (1996). A New Look At Psychological Climate And Its Relationship To Job Involvement, Effort, And Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 358–368. http://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.4.358

Burgess, C. (2013). Factors Influencing Middle Managers’ Ability To Contribute To Corporate Entrepreneurship. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32(1), 193–201. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.05.009

Choo, A. S., Linderman, K., & Schroeder, R. G. (2007). Social and method effects on learning behaviors and knowledge creation in six sigma projects. Management Science, 53(3), 437–450.

Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 471–482.

Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1989). Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, part II. Case study: A computational theory of social exchange. Ethology and Socio-biology, 10(1–3), 51–97. http://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095 (89)90013-7

Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2015). Adaptations for Reasoning About Social Exchange. In the handbook of evolutionary psychology. (pp. 625–668).

Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1991). A Conceptual Model Of Entrepreneurship As Firm Behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(1), 7–25.

Daniel, F., & Purwanti, A. (2015). The Impact Of Organizational Culture And Job Satisfaction To Organizational Commitment And Employees’ Job Performance (An Empirical Study at A University in Tangerang). In Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Association (APMAA) Annual Conference At: Bali, Indonesia (pp. 1–18). http://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1196.4240

De Clercq, D., Dimov, D., & Thongpapanl, N. T. (2010). The Moderating Impact Of Internal Social Exchange Processes On The Entrepreneurial Orientation-Performance Relationship. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1), 87–103. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.01.004

De Jong, J. P. J., Parker, S. K., Wennekers, S., & Wu, C. (2011). Corporate Entrepreneurship At The Individual Level: Measurement and determinants. EIM Research Reports. Zoetermeer: EIM (Vol. 11).

Dess, G. G., Ireland, R. D., Zahra, S. A., Floyd, S. W., Janney, J. J., & Lane, P. J. (2003). Emerging Issues In Corporate Entrepreneurship. Journal of Management, 29(3), 351–378. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00015-1

Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership Behavior And Employee Voice: Is The Door Really Open? Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869–884.

Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological Safety And Learning Behavior In Work Teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350–383. http://doi.org/10.2307/2666999

Edmondson, A. C. (2003). Speaking Up In The Operating Room: How Team Leaders Promote Learning In Interdisciplinary Action Teams. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1419–1452. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00386

Edmondson, A. C., Kramer, R. M., & Cook, K. S. (2004). Psychological Safety, Trust, And Learning In Organizations: A Group-Level Lens. Trust and distrust in organizations: Dilemmas and approaches, 12, 239-272.

Edmondson, A. C., & Lei, Z. (2014). Psychological safety: The History, Renaissance, And Future Of An Interpersonal Construct. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1, 23–43. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091305

Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social Exchange Theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2(1976), 335–362.

Ergeneli, A., Ari, G. S., & Metin, S. (2007). Psychological Empowerment And Its Relationship To Trust In Immediate Managers. Journal of business research, 60(1), 41-49. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.09.012

Ermalina, Hendriani, S., & Efni, Y. (2017). The Mediating Effect Of Work Enhusiasm On Non Financial Compensation And Style Of Leadership Implementation To Employee’s Performance in PT. Instrucom, Riau, Indonesia. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 15(2), 1–11.

Fellnhofer, K., Puumalainen, K., & Sjogren, H. (2016). Entrepreneurial Orientation And Performance - Are Sexes Equal ? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 22(3), 346–374. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2015-0286

Frazier, M. L., Fainshmidt, S., Klinger, R. L., Pezeshkan, A., & Vracheva, V. (2016). Psychological Safety: A Meta-Analytic Review And Extension. Personnel Psychology, 70(1), 113-165. http://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12183

Gambetta, D. (2000). Can We Trust? In Trust: Making And Breaking Cooperative Relations, 13, 213-237. http://doi.org/10.1.1.24.5695

Ghaffari, S., Shah, I. M., Burgoyne, J., Nazri, M., & Salleh, J. R. (2017). The Influence Of Motivation On Job Performance: A Case Study At Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 11(4), 92–99.

Gong, Y., Cheung, S. Y., Wang, M., & Huang, J. C. (2012). Unfolding the Proactive Process For Creativity: Integration Of The Employee Proactivity, Information Exchange, And Psychological Safety Perspectives. Journal of Management, 38(5), 1611–1633. http://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310380250

Gong, Y., Huang, J. C., & Farh, J. L. (2009). Employee Learning Orientation, Transformational Leadership, And Employee Creativity: The Mediating Role Of Employee Creative Self-Efficacy. The Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 765–778.

Hashemi, S. M. K., Nadi, H. K., Hosseini, S. M., & Rezvanfar, A. (2012). Explaining Agricultural Personnel’s Intrapreneurial Behavior: The Mediating Effects Of Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(6), 299–308.

Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical Mediation Analysis In The New Millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420. http://doi.org/10.1080/03637750903310360

Heath, C., & Tversky, A. (1991). Preferences and Beliefs: Ambiguity And Competence In Choice Under Uncertainty. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 4(5), 5–28. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF00057884

Holt, D. T., Rutherford, M. W., & Clohessy, G. R. (2007). Corporate Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Look At Individual Characteristics, Context, And Process. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13(4), 40–54.

Hornsby, J. S., Kuratko, D. F., Shepherd, D. A., & Bott, J. P. (2009). Managers’ Corporate Entrepreneurial Actions: Examining Perception And Position. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(3), 236–247. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2008.03.002

Hornsby, J. S., Kuratko, D. F., & Zahra, S. A. (2002). Middle Managers’ Perception Of The Internal Environment For Corporate Entrepreneurship: Assessing A Measurement Scale. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(3), 253–273. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(00)00059-8

Husin, H., Yaakub, S., & Malek, M. M. M. A. (2014). The Relationship Between Cultural Intelligence And Work Performance Of Public Service Workers In Malaysia. In Human Rights Disclosure: Before And After The Global Financial Crisis, 126–136.

Inuwa, M. (2016). Job satisfaction and employee performance: An Empirical Approach. The Millennium University Journal, 1(1), 90–103.

Ismail, N. N. H. N., Mahmood, R., & Ab Rahim, R. (2012). The Relationship Between Intrapreneurial Orientation And Job Performance Among Academicians In Malaysian Public Universities. In ASEAN Entrepreneurship Conference, 91–100.

Jalalkamali, M., Ali, A. J., Hyun, S. S., & Nikbin, D. (2016). Relationships Between Work Values, Communication Satisfaction, And Employee Job Performance: The Case Of International Joint Ventures In Iran. Management Decision, 54(4), 796–814.

Joardar, A., & Wu, S. (2011). Examining The Dual Forces Of Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation And Liability Of Foreignness On International Entrepreneurs. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28(3), 328–340. http://doi.org/10.1002/cjas.203

June, S., Kheng, Y. K., & Mahmood, R. (2013). Determining the Importance Of Competency And Person-Job Fit For The Job Performance Of Service Smes Employees in Malaysia. Asian Social Science, 9(10). http://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v9n10p114

Jyoti, J., & Dev, M. (2017). Perceived High-Performance Work System And Employee Performance : Role Of Self-Efficacy And Learning Orientation. Metamorphosis, 15(2), 1–18. http://doi.org/10.1177/0972622516688392

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological Conditions Of Personal Engagement And Disengagement At Work. The Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724. http://doi.org/10.2307/256287

Kanter, R. M. (1984). The Change Masters. New York, Simon and Schuster.

Karimi, A., Malekmohamadi, I., Daryani, M. A., & Rezvanfar, A. (2011). A Conceptual Model Of Intrapreneurship In The Iranian Agricultural Extension Organization Implications for HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(7), 632–657.

Kark, R., & Carmeli, A. (2009). Alive and Creating: The Mediating Role Of Vitality And Aliveness In The Relationship Between Psychological Safety And Creative Work Involvement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 785–804. http://doi.org/10.1002/job

Koopmann, J., Lanaj, K., Wang, M., Zhou, L., & Shi, J. (2016). Nonlinear Effects Of Team Tenure On Team Psychological Safety Climate And Climate Strength: Implications For Average Team Member Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1–18. http://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000097

Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C. M., Hildebrandt, V. H., Lerner, D., de Vet, H. C., & van der Beek, A. J. (2014). Construct Validity Of The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56(3), 331–337. http://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-152237

Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C. M., Hildebrandt, V. H., Schaufeli, W. B., de Vet Henrica, C. W., & van der Beek, A. J. (2011). Conceptual Frameworks Of Individual Work Performance: A Systematic Review. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53(8), 856–866. http://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e318226a763

Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C. M., Hildebrandt, V. H., Van Buuren, S., Van der Beek, A. J., & De Vet, H. C. (2014). Improving the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire Using Rasch Analysis. Journal of Applied Measurement, 15(2), 160-. http://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2013-101717.51

Krueger, N., & Dickson, P. R. (1994). How Believing In Ourselves Increases Risk Taking: Perceived Self-Efficacy And Opportunity Recognition. Decision Sciences, 25(3), 385–400. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.1994.tb00810.x

Kuratko, D. F., & Goldsby, M. G. (2004). Corporate Entrepreneurs Or Rogue Middle Managers? A Framework For Ethical Corporate Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 55(1), 13–30. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-004-1775-3

Kuratko, D. F., Montagno, R. V., & Hornsby, J. S. (1990). Developing an Intrapreneurial Assessment Instrument For An Effective Corporate Entrepreneurial Environment. Strategic Management Journal, 11(Special Issue), 49–58.

Liang, J., Farh, C. I. C., & Farh, J.-L. (2012). Psychological Antecedents Of Promotive And Prohibitive Voice: A Two-Wave Examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 71–92.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrowe, R. T. (2000). An Examination Of The Mediating Role Of Psychological Empowerment On The Relations Between The Job, Interpersonal Relationships, And Work Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 407–416. http://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.407

Liu, A. M. M., Chiu, W. M., & Fellows, R. (2007). Enhancing Commitment Through Work Empowerment. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 14(6), 568–580. http://doi.org/10.1108/09699980710829021

Liu, W., Zhang, P., Liao, J., Hao, P., & Mao, J. (2016). Abusive Supervision And Employee Creativity: The Mediating Role Of Psychological Safety And Organizational Identification. Management Decision, 54(1), 130–147.

Lumpkin, G., & Dess, G. (1996). Clarifying The Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct And Linking It To Performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135–172.

Madu, U. O., & Urban, B. (2014). An Empirical Study Of Desired Versus Actual Compensation Practices In Determining Intrapreneurial Behaviour. South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(1), 1–10. http://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v12i1.592

Mahmoud, M. A., S. B. Ahmad, and D. A. L. Poespowidjojo. (2018). Intrapreneurial Behavior, Psychological Safety And The Individual Performance Of Production/Operation Managers In Nigerian Medium Enterprises: Pilot test. Advanced Science Letters, 24(1): 423–425.

Mair, J. (2005). Entrepreneurial Behavior In A Large Traditional Firm: Exploring Key Drivers. In Corporate Entrepreneurship And Venturing , 49–72. Springer, Boston, MA. http://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-24850-1

Markman, G. D., & Baron, R. A. (2003). Person-entrepreneurship Fit: Why Some People Are More Successful As Entrepreneurs Than Others. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 281–301. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(03)00018-4

Menon, S. T. (1999). Psychological Empowerment: Definition, Measurement, And Validation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31(3), 161–164. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0087084

Moshtaghi, S., Moridi, A., Farokhi, A., Konani, M., & Rotafi, A. (2012). The Amount Of Corporate Entrepreneurship And Its Relationship With Performance Improvement Of Organizations. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(5), 4361–4367.

Motowidlo, S. J., Borman, W. C., & Schmit, M. J. (1997). A Theory Of Individual Differences In Task And Contextual Performance. Human Performance, 10(2), 71–83. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002

Mustafa, M., Martin, L., & Hughes, M. (2016). Psychological Ownership, Job Satisfaction, And Middle Manager Entrepreneurial Behavior. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 1–16. http://doi.org/10.1177/1548051815627360

Mustapa, A. N., & Mahmood, R. (2016). Knowledge Management And Job Performance In The Public Sector: The Moderating Role Of Public Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Research in Business Studies and Management, 3(7), 28–36.

Onugu, B. A. N. (2005). Small and Medium Enterprises (Smes) In Nigeria: Problems And Prospects. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). St. Clements University, Nigeria.

Park, S. H., Kim, J.-N., & Krishna, A. (2014). Bottom-Up Building Of An Innovative Organization: Motivating Employee Intrapreneurship And Scouting And Their Strategic Value. Management Communication Quarterly, 28(4), 531–560. http://doi.org/10.1177/0893318914541667

Pradhan, R. K., & Nath, P. (2012). Perception of Entrepreneurial Orientation And Emotional Intelligence: A Study On India’s Future Techno-Managers. Global Business Review, 13(2010), 89–108. http://doi.org/10.1177/097215091101300106

Redmond, M. R., Mumford, M. D., & Teach, R. (1993). Putting Creativity To Work: Effects Of Leader Behavior On Subordinate Creativity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 55(1), 120–151.

Rigtering, J. P. C., & Weitzel, U. (2013). Work Context And Employee Behaviour As Antecedents For Intrapreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9(3), 337–360. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-013-0258-3

Rojuaniah, E., Sule, T., & Joeliaty, S. (2016). The Factors Influence Intrapreneurship Behavior In Construction Company. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 5(5), 36–40.

Rousseau, D. M. (1989). Psychological and Implied Contracts In Organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2(2), 121–139. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01384942

Schaubroeck, J., Lam, S. S. K., & Peng, A. C. (2011). Cognition-Based And Affect-Based Trust As Mediators Of Leader Behavior Influences On Team Performance. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 863–71. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0022625

Seibert, S. E., Wang, G., & Courtright, S. H. (2011). Antecedents and Consequences Of Psychological And Team Empowerment In Organizations: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(5), 981–1003. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0022676

Serinkan, C., Kaymakçi, K., Arat, G., & Avcik, C. (2013). An Empirical Study On Intrapreneurship: In A Service Sector In Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 89, 715–719. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.920

SMEDAN. (2013). SMEDAN and National Bureau Of Statistics Collaborative Survey: Selected Findings. Abuja, Nigeria.

Sonnentag, S., & Frese, M. (2002). Performance Concepts And Performance Theory. Psychological Management Of Individual Performance, 23, 3–25.

Spector, P. E. (1986). Perceived Control By Employees: A Meta-Analysis Of Studies Concerning Autonomy And Participation At Work. Human Relations, 39(11), 1005–1016. http://doi.org/10.1177/001872678603901104

Spreitzer, M. (1995). Psychological Empowerment In The Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, And Validation. The Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442–1465.

Stewart, J. K. (2009). An Investigation Of An Intrapreneurial Orientation Among Employees In Service Organizations (Doctoral Dissertation). The Ohio State University, USA.

Struzyna, J., & Marzec, I. (2003). Multidimensional Empowerment As A Leverage For Shaping Entrepreneurial Behaviors: Some Empirical Evidence. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 2003: Babson College.

Stull, M. G. (2005). Intrapreneurship in Non-Profit Organizations: Examining The Factors That Facilitate Entrepreneurial Behavior Among Employees (Executive Doctor of Management Paper). Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Tabiu, A., Pangil, F., & Othman, S. Z. (2016). Examining the Link Between HRM Practices And Employees’ Performance In Nigerian Public Sector. Management Science Letters, 6, 395–408. http://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2016.4.006

Taiwo, A. S. (2010). The Influence Of Work Environment On Workers Productivity: A Case Of Selected Oil And Gas Industry in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Business Management, 4(3), 299–307. http://doi.org/ISSN 1993-8233

Taştan, S. B., & Güçel, C. (2014). Explaining Intrapreneurial Behaviors Of Employees With Perceived Organizational Climate And Testing The Mediating Role Of Organizational Identification: A Research Study Among Employees Of Turkish Innovative Firms. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150, 862–871. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.095

Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive Elements Of Empowerment: An “Interpretive†Model Of Intrinsic Task Motivation. The Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666–681.

Thompson, M. (2017). How to Manage Poor Employee Performance. Hearst Newspapers, LLC. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/manage-poor-employee-performance-44897.html

Towers Watson. (2012). Engagement at Risk: Driving Strong Performance In A Volatile Global Environment. Global Workforce Study. Retrieved from http://www.towerswatson.com/assets/pdf/2012-Towers-Watson-Global-Workforce-Study.pdf

Uslu, Tuna, Nimet Eryiğit, & Çubuk, D. (2015). Individual and Organizational Effects Of The Corporate Practices With The Mediating Role Of Lean Intrapreneurship: Differences Between Public And Private Sector in Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 210: 301–9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042815057171

Valsania, S. E., Moriano, J. A., & Molero, F. (2016). Authentic leadership and intrapreneurial behavior: Cross-level analysis of the mediator effect of organizational identification and empowerment. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(1), 131–152. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-014-0333-4

Van der Sijde, P., Veenker, S., & During, W. (2013). Intrapreneurship in SMEs: About the role of management and R&D. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 1(11), 24–30.

Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2000). Perspectives on Models Of Job Performance Perspectives On Models Of Job Performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(4), 216–226. http://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00151

Wakkee, I., Elfring, T., & Monaghan, S. (2010). Creating entrepreneurial Employees In Traditional Service Sectors: The Role Of Coaching And Self-Efficacy. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(1), 1–21. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-008-0078-z

World Economic Forum. (2015). Global Competitiveness Report 2015 - 2016 (Vol. 1).

Yang, J., Zhang, Z. X., & Tsui, A. S. (2010). Middle Manager Leadership And Frontline Employee Performance: Bypass, Cascading, And Moderating Effects. Journal of Management Studies, 47(4), 654–678. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00902.x

Zampetakis, L. A., Beldekos, P., & Moustakis, V. S. (2009). Day-to-Day Entrepreneurship Within Organisations: The Role Of Trait Emotional Intelligence And Perceived Organisational Support. European Management Journal, 27(3), 165–175. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2008.08.003

Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking Empowering Leadership And Employee Creativity: The Influence Of Psychological Empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation, And Creative Process Management. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 107–128. http://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2010.48037118

Downloads

Published

2018-08-20

Issue

Section

Articles