Tingkah Laku Proaktif Meningkatkan Kejayaan Kerjaya Pekerja


  • Azman Ismail Fakulti Ekonomi dan Pengurusan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Wan Aishah Wan Mohd Nowalid Institut Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Raja Rizal Iskandar Raja Hisham Pusat Pengajian Perniagaan Islam, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010, UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia




Proactive personality, social networking, promotion, career satisfaction, SmartPLS


Proactive behavior is an important dispositional element that may positively affect organization and employees. According to the recent literature pertaining to human resource development, proactive behavior consists of two salient elements: proactive personality and social networking. Interestingly, extant studies in this field highlight that the ability of individuals to appropriately use proactive behavior in performing daily job may help them to an enhanced career success in organizations. Although this relationship has been widely studied, the role of proactive behavior as an important determinant is little discussed in the organizational career model. Thus, this study was undertaken to measure the relationship between proactive behavior and career success. A survey method was employed to collect data from officers who serve at a state Islamic institution in south of Peninsular Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path analysis model confirmed that employees who are able to properly use proactive personality and implement good social networking may gain satisfaction in their career. Conversely, employees who often potrayed their social networking unable to get better promotion in the studied organization. Further, this study offers discussion, implications and conclusion.


Ahmad Munawar Ismail & Mohd. Nor Shahizan Ali. (2014). Kaedah Penyelidikan Sosial daripada Perspektif Islam. Cetakan pertama. Bangi: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Akkermans, J., & Tims, M. (2017). Crafting Your Career: How Career Competencies Relate To Career Success Via Job Crafting. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 66(1), 168-195.

Al-Mansor Abu Said, Roziah Mohd Rasdi, Bahaman Abu Samah, Abu Daud Silong & Suzaimah Sulaiman. (2015). A Career Success Model For Academics At Malaysian Research Universities. European Journal of Training and Development, 39(9), 815-835.

Arthur, M. B., Inkson, D., & Pringle, J. (1999). The New Careers: Individual Action and Economic Change. London: Sage.

Barclay, D. W., Higgins, C., & Thompson, R. (1995). The Partial Least Squares Approach To Causal Modeling: Personal Computer Adoption And Use As Illustration. Technology Studies, 2(2), 285-309.

Barnett, B. R., & Bradley, L. (2007). The Impact Of Organizational Support For Career Development On Career Satisfaction. Career Development International, 12(7), 617-636.

Bateman, T. S., & Crant, J. M. (1993). The Proactive Component Of Organizational Behavior: A Measure And Correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(2), 103-118.

Bergeron, D. M., Schroeder, T. D., & Martinez, H. (2014). Proactive Personality at Work: Seeing More to Do and Doing More? Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 71-86.

Celebi, N., & Korumaz, M. (2016). Teachers’ Loyalty To Their Supervisors And Organizational Commitment. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(12), 1161-1167.

Cerit, Y. (2017). The Mediating Effect Of LMX In The Relationhsip Between School Bureaucratic Structure And Teachers’ Proactive Behavior. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(6), 780-793.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The Partial Least Squares Approach To Structural Equation Modelling, in R.H. Hoyle (Eds.). Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research (pp. 307-341). Thousand Oaks - California: Sage Publication, Inc.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Crant, J. M. (2000). Proactive Behavior in Organizations. Journal of Management, 26(3), 435-462.

Cresswell, J. W. (2014). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions. London: Sage publications.

De Vos, A., Dewilde, T., & De Clippeleer, I. (2009). Proactive Career Behaviours And Career Success During The Early Career. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82, 761-777.

Den Hartog, D. N., Boon, C., Verburg, R. M. & Croon, M. A. (2013). HRM, Communication, Satisfaction, And Perceived Performance: A Cross-Level Test. Journal of Management, 39(6), 1637-1665.

Dreher, G. F., & Cox, T. H. (2000). Labor Market Mobility And Cash Compensation: The Moderating Effects Of Race And Gender. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 890-900.

Dubrin, A. J. (2013). Proactive Personality and Behavior for Individual and Organizational Productivity. UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Fauzi Hussin, Jamal Ali & Mohd Saifoul Zamzuri Noor. (2014). Kaedah Penyelidikan & Analisis Data SPSS. Cetakan pertama. Sintok: Penerbit Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Fay, D., & Frese, M. (2001). The Concept of Personal Initiative: An Overview Of Validity Studies. Human Performance, 14(1), 97-124.

Fay, D., & Sonnentag, S. (2012). Within-Person Fluctuations Of Proactive Behavior: How Affect And Experienced Competence Regulate Work Behavior. Human Performance, 25, 72-93.

Ferris, G. R., Treadway, D. C., Perrewe´, P. L., Brouer, R. L., Douglas, C., & Lux, S. (2007). Political Skill In Organizations. Journal of Management, 33(3), 290-320.

Forret, M. L. & Dougherty, T. W. (2001). Correlates of Networking Behavior For Managerial And Professional Employees. Group and Organization Management, 26, 283-311.

Forret, M. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (2004). Networking Behaviors And Career Outcomes: Differences For Men And Women?. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 419-437.

Fuller Jr. B., & Marler L. E. (2009). Change Driven By Nature: A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Proactive Personality Literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 329-345.

Gevorkian, M. (2011). Relationships Between Proactive Personality, Networking, Career Satisfaction, And Performance Perceptions. Tesis Dr. Fal, Faculty of the Marshall Goldsmith School of Management Organizational Psychology division, San Diego Alliant International University.

Grant, A. M., & Ashford, S. J. (2008). The Dynamics Of Proactivity At Work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 3-34.

Greenhaus, J. H., Parasuraman, S., & Wormley, W. M. (1990). Effects of Race On Organizational Experiences, Job Performance Evaluations, And Career Outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 33(1), 64-86.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-151.

Hair. J. F, Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Second Edition. Los Angeles: Sage.

Hennekam, S. (2015). Career Success Of Older Workers: The Influence Of Social Skills And Continuous Learning Ability. Journal of Management Development, 34(9), 1113-1133.

Hennekam, S. (2016). Competencies of Older Workers And Its Influence On Career Success And Job Satisfaction. Employee Relations, 38(2), 130-146.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The Use Of Partial Least Squares Path Modeling In International Marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277-320.

Henseler, J. (2010). On the Convergence Of The Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Algorithm. Computational Statistics, 25(1), 107-120.

Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., Ketchen, D. J., Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., & Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common Beliefs And Reality About Partial Least Squares: Comments on Rönkkö & Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods 17(2): 182-209.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A New Criterion For Assessing Discriminant Validity In Variance-Based Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of the Academy Marketing Science, 43, 115-135.

Higgins, M. C., & Kram, K. E. (2001). Reconceptualizing Mentoring At Work: A Developmental Network Perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 264-288.

Hussey, J., & Hussey, R. (1997). Business Research: A Practical Guide For Undergraduate And Postgraduate Students. Basingstoke, UK: McMillan Press.

Inkson, K., & Arthur, M. B. (2001). How to be a Successful Career Capitalist. Organizational Dynamics, 30, 48-61.

Ismail, A., Adnan, N. H., Awang, A. H., Abdul Rani, N. S., & Ismail, Y. (2015). Interlinkages Between Career Development , Career Needs, Career Satisfaction And Career Commitment : Case Study Of A Military-Oriented Tertiary Educational Institution in Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 11(3), 97-110.

Jasmer, A. M. (2015). Dispositional Employability and the Relationship to Career Success: A Meta-analysis. California State University, San Bernardino.

Jawahar, I. M., & Liu, Y. (2016). Proactive Personality And Citizenship Performance: The Mediating Role Of Career Satisfaction And The Moderating Role Of Political Skill. Career Development International, 21(4), 378-401.

Johanim Johari & Khulida Kirana Yahya. (2016). Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, And Job Performance Of Public Servants. European Journal of Training and Development, 40(7), 554-575.

Kamus Dewan. (2016). Edisi ke-2. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Kiarie, M. A. W., Maru, L. C., & Cheruiyot, T. K. (2017). Leader Personality Traits And Employee Job Satisfaction In The Media Sector, Kenya. The TQM Journal, 29(1), 133-146.

King, Z. (2004). Career Self-Management: Its Nature, Causes And Consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 112-133.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice Of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: Guilford Press.

Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2006). Integrating Person And Situation Perspectives On Work Satisfaction: A Sosial-Cognitive View. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(2), 236-247.

Liu, Y., Fuller, B., Hester, K., Bennett, R. J., & Dickerson, M. S. (2017). Linking Authentic Leadership To Subordinate Behaviors. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

Maurer, T. J., & Clenney, E. F. (2012). Predicting Ten Years of Worker Career Success from Employee Development Behavior. Georgia State University.

Mohd Mahathir Suhaimi Shamsuri. (2013). Strategi Pembangunan Program Homestay Kampung Kangkar Merlimau. Tesis Ijazah S. Pend. Teknik dan Vokasional. Fakulti Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.

Morgan, W. B., Walker, S. S., Wang, Y., & Aven, Jr. F. F. (2012). Proactive and Committed: Characteristics For Retention. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 12(2), 97-108.

Nor’ Ain Abdullah, Azman Ismail, Mohd Fazir Abd Latif & Najihah Omar. (2015). Peranan Program Pementoran Dalam Meningkatkan Kejayaan Menti: Kajian Empirikal Amalan Komunikasi Di Sebuah Universiti Awam Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 11(10), 89-100.

Nurul Hudani Md. Nawi, Ma'rof Redzuan & Noor Hisham Md Nawi. (2016). Hubungan Antara Tret Personaliti Kehematan, Keterbukaan Pada Pengalaman, Ekstraversi Dan Kesetujuan Dengan Prestasi Kerja Dalam Kalangan Pemimpin Pendidik Bagi Sekolah Prestasi Tinggi (SBT) di Malaysia. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 30(1), 102-112.

Owens, J. J. (2009). Examining the Relationship Between Proactive Personality And Career Success. Tesis Sarjana, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga.

Palvalin, M., Voordt, T. V. D., & Jylha, T. (2017). The Impact Of Workplaces And Self-Management Practices On The Productivity Of Knowledge Workers. Journal of Facilities Management, 15(4), 423-438.

Parker, S. & Collins, C. (2010). Taking Stock: Integrating And Differentiating Multiple Proactive Behaviors. Journal of Management, 36, 633-662.

Parker, S. K., Williams, H. M. & Turner, N. (2006). Modeling The Antecedents Of Proactive Behavior At Work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 636-652.

Parker, S. K., Bindl, U. K., & Strauss, K. (2010). Making Things Happen: A Model Of Proactive Motivation. Journal of Management, 36, 827-856.

Qureshi, S.S & Saleem, F. (2016). Impact Of Networking On Career Progression: Moderating Role Of Gender. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 10(3), 419-443.

Ramayah, T., Cheah, J., Chuah, F., Ting, H., & Memon, M. A. (2017). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS 3.0: An Updated and Practical Guide to Statistical Analysis. Basic Level. First Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Pearson Malaysia Sdn Bhd.

Roslan Mahmood & Nik Rosnah Wan Abdullah. (2008). Pendidikan Etika, Moral Dan Integriti Dalam Organisasi Sektor Awam di Malaysia. Jurnal Pengurusan Awam, 123-140.

Roziah Mohd Rasdi, Garavan, T. N., & Maimunah Ismail. (2011). Understanding Proactive Behaviours And Career Success: Evidence From An Emerging Economy. Organizations and Markets In Emerging Economies, 2, 2(4), 53-71.

Roziah Mohd Rasdi, Garavan, T. N., & Maimunah Ismail. (2013). Networking Behaviours And Managers’ Career Success In The Malaysian Public Service: The Moderating Effect Of Gender. Personnel Review, 42(6), 684-703.

Saodah Wok & Junaidah Hashim. (2017). Communication Power As A Mediator On Networking And Career Success: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Communications of the IBIMA, 2017.

Sekaran, U. & Bougie, R. (2010). Research Methods For Business: A Skill Building Approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sturges, J., Guest, D. & Mackenzie Davey, K. (2002). Who’s in Charge? Graduates’ Attitudes To And Experiences Of Career Management And Their Relationship With Organizational Commitment. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9, 351-371.

Thomas, J. P., Whitman, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Employee Proactivity In Organizations: A Comparative Meta-Analysis Of Emergent Proactive Constructs. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 275-300.

Thompson, J. A. (2005). Proactive Personality And Job Performance: A Sosial Capital Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1011-1017.

Tummers, L. G., Kruyen, P., Vijverberg, D., & Voesenek, T. (2015). Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance Of Proactivity And Vitality. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 28(4), 627-640.

Turban, D. B., Moake, T. R., Wu, S. Y. H. & Cheung, Y. H. (2017). Linking Extroversion And Proactive Personality To Career Success: The Role Of Mentoring Received And Knowledge. Journal of Career Development, 44(1), 20-33.

Vandenberghe, C., & Basak Ok, A. (2013). Career Commitment, Proactive Personality, And Work Outcomes: A Cross-Lagged Study. Career Development International, 18(7), 652-672.

Whitely, W., Dougherty, T. W., & Dreher, G. F. (1991). The Relationship Of Career And Mentoring And Socioeconomic Origin To Managers, And Professionals, Early Career Progress. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 331-351.

Yean, T. F., Khulida Kirana Yahya, Siti Zubaidah Othman & Pangil Faizuniah. (2013). Proactive Personality And Career Success: What’s The Connection? Jurnal Teknologi, 64(2), 45-48.

Yun, Y. J., & Lee, K. J. (2017). Social Skills As A Moderator Between R&D Personnel’s Knowledge Sharing And Job Performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 32(5), 387-400.




How to Cite

Ismail, A., Wan Mohd Nowalid, W. A., & Raja Hisham, R. R. I. (2018). Tingkah Laku Proaktif Meningkatkan Kejayaan Kerjaya Pekerja. Sains Humanika, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.11113/sh.v10n2.1388