Organizational Commitment And Employee Engagement Among Administrators In Public Universities In Malaysia


  • Ruswahida Ibnu Ruslan School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
  • Md. Aminul Islam School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
  • Idris Mohd Noor School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
  • Norsiah Mat School of Businees Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Aina Afiqah Amiruddin Entrepreneurship & Business Administration ,SKEMA Business School, France



Employee engagement, continuous commitment, normative commitment, affective commitment, public university administrators


This study attempted to examine the effect of organizational commitment on employee engagement among universities’ administrators in public universities of Malaysia. For the purpose of the study, data were collected through a structured questionnaire from 400 participants consisting of administrators in public universities in Malaysia. Collected data were analyzed using partial least square (PLS) structured equation modeling with the support of SMART PLS 2.0. Findings revealed that affective commitment and normative commitment has significant effect on employee engagement while continuance commitment was not found to have any significant effect on employee engagement. The outcomes of this empirical study will help in designing appropriate human resource management policies to improve the engagement level of administrator at all public universities in Malaysia.



Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The Measurement And Antecedents Of Affective, Continuance And Normative Commitment To The Organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1–18. Retrieved from

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: An Examination of Construct Validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49(3), 252–76.

Amzat, I. H. (2008). Leadership Styles of Heads of Departments and Academic’s Staff’s Self-Efficacy at International Islamic University Malaysia. In Leadership in a changing landscape (pp. 1–40). Kuala Lumpur: CERT Publications Sdn. Bhd.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.

Bakar, R. A. (2013). Understanding Factors Influencing Employee Engagement : A Study of the Financial Sector in Malaysia (Doctoral dissertation).Available from Theses database.

Barratt, M., Choi, T., & Li, M. (2011). Qualitativr Cases Studies In Operations Management: Trends, Research Outcomesand Future Research Implications. Journal of Operations Management, 24(4), 329-342.

Batista-taran, L. C., Shuck, M. B., Gutierrez, C. C., & Baralt, S. (2009). The Role of Leadership Style in Employee Engagement. Proceedings of the Eight Annual College of Education &GSN Research Conference, 15–20.

Bohn, J. G., & Grafton, D. (2002). The Relationship of Perceived Leadership Behaviors to Organizational Efficacy. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(2), 65–80.

Chin, W. W. (1998a). The Partial Least Squares Approach For Structural Equation Modeling. In George A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern Methods for Business Research, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 295–336.

Coffman, C. (2000). Is Your Company Bleeding Talent? How to Become A True “Employer Of Choiceâ€. The Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved from bleeding-talent.aspx

Covey, B. S. M. R., & Merrill, W. R. R. (2006). The SPEED of Trust, 1–52.

Demerouti, E., A.B. Bakker, F., Nachreiner., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). “The Job Demands-resources Model of Burnout.†Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499– 512.

Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2002). Trust in Leadership: Meta-Analytic Findings And Implications For Research And Practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 611–628.

Fornell, C., & Cha, J. (1994). Partial Least Squares. In Advanced Methods Of Marketing Research (In Bagozzi). Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers.

Glied, S. (2000). Managed care. In Handbook of Health Economics (In J. C. A, pp. 707–753). Elsevier.

González, T. F., & Guillén, M. (2008). Organizational Commitment: A Proposal for a wider Ethical conceptualization Of “Normative Commitment.†Journal of Business Ethics, 78, 401−414.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldman, G. R. (1980). Work Redesign. In Reading MA: Addison Wesley.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. (7, Ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.

Hamid, H. A. (2002). Peranan dan tanggungjawab Pegawai Tadbir Universiti. Retrieved from

Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam, M. (2004). Pekeliling Perkhidmatan Bilangan 3 Tahun 200; Panduan Pertukaran Pegawai Awam, 3, 1–10.

Jogulu and Wood. (2008). “A Cross- Cultural Study into Peer Evaluations of Women’s Leadership Effectiveness.†Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 29(7), 600–616.

Kahn, W. A. (1992). To Be Fully There: Psychological Presence at Work. Human Relations, 45(4), 321–349.

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement At Work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724. Retrieved from

Keller Johnson, L. (2005). The New Loyalty: Make It Work For Your Company. Harvard Management Update, 10, 3–5.

Kular, S., Gatenby, M., Rees, C., Soane, E., & Truss, K. (2013). The Impact Of Employee Benefits As Retention Strategy In A Concept Dining Restaurant Chain In India. Master Dissertation, The National College of Ireland.

Leiter, M., & Bakker, A. (2010). Work engagement: an introduction. Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Practice, 1-9.

Lelchook, A. (2013). Antecedents and Outcomes Of Workplace Engagement. (Doctoral dissertation, Detroit Michigan). Retrieved from International:

McBain, R. (2007). The Practice Of Engagement: Research Into Current Employee Engagement Practice. Strategic HR Review, 6(6), 16–19.

Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008a). The Meaning of Employee Engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3–30.

Mahmood, R. (2005). Ethical Perceptions Of Small Business Owners In Malaysia. International Journal of Management and Entrepreneurship, 1(2), 138–145.

Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A Review And Meta-Analysis Of The Antecedents, Correlates, And Consequences Of Organizational Commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 171–194.

Matzler, K., & Renzl, B. (2006). The Relationship between Interpersonal Trust, Employee Satisfaction, and Employee Loyalty. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 17(10), 1261–1271.

McShane, S., & Travaglione, T. (2007). Organisational behavior: On the Pacific Rim (2nd edition). New South Wales: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Metzler, J. M. (2006). The Relationships Between Leadership Styles And Employe Eengagement. (Master's Thesis). Available from htt://

Meyer, J. P., & Parfyonova, N. M. (2010). Normative Commitment in the Workplace: A Theoretical Analysis and Re-conceptualization. Human Resource Management Review, 20, 283-294.

Moody, V. J. (2012). Examining Leadership Styles and Employee Engagement in the Public and Private Sectors.(Doctoral dissertation, University Of Phoenix). Available from ProQuest Dissertation and These Database (Umi No.3535727).

Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric Methhods (2nd ed.). New York: Mc Graw.

Ortiz, D. C., & Lau, W.K. (2011). “The Effect of Employee Engagement on Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization.†Paper presented at Southwest Decision Sciences Institute 42nd Annual Conference, Houston, TX.

Popoola, A. , & Ayeni, R. (2007). On the Effect Of Reaction Order O Stability Of Two Variable Model For Combustion In Selaed Container. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 2(8), 908–912.

Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The Drivers of Employee Engagement. The Institute Of Employment Studies. Retrieved from

Ruswahida, I. R. (2017). Determinants of Employee Engagement Among Assistant Registrars of Public Universities in Malaysia and Moderating Effect of Age, Gender and Length of Services. Universiti Malaysia Perlis.

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and Consequences Of Employee Engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 600–619.

Sanchez, P., & McCauley, D. (2006). Measuring and Managing Engagement In A Cross Cultural Workforce: New Insights For Global Companies. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 41–50.

Sarti, D., (2014). Leadership Styles To Engage Employees : Evidence From Human Service Organizations in Italy. Journal of Workplace Learning, 26 (4), 202 – 216

Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods For Business (4th Editio). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Smith, S. (2013, August 14). How the Best Places to Work are Nailing Employee Engagement. Retrieved from Forbes/Leadership:

Stockley, D. (2007). Employee Engagement And Organsiational Pride. Retrieved from Stone, M. (1974). Cross-Validatory Choice And Assessment Of Statistical Predictions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 36, 111-147.

Taormina, R. (1999). Predicting Employee Commitment And Satisfaction: The Relative Effects Of Socialization And Demographics. The International Journal of Human Resources Management, 10(6), 1060–1076.

Tatum, B. C., Eberlin, R., Kottraba, C., & Bradberry, T. (2003). Leadership, Decision Making, And Organizational Justice. Management Decision, 41(10), 1006–1016.

Vance, R. J. (2006). Employee Engagement And Commitment: A Guide To Understanding, Measuring, And Increasing Engagement In Your Organization. In The SHRM Foundation. Alenxandria, VA.

Vazirani, N. (2007). Employee Engagement. SIES: College of Management Studies Working Paper Series.Available from

Wagner, R., & Harter, J. K. (2006). 12: The Great Elements Of Managing. New York: Gallup Press. Retrieved from Date access: 20 January, 2018

Wallace, L., & Trinka, J. (2009). Leadership and Employee Engagement. Public Management, 91(5), 10– 13.

Wang, D. S., & Hsieh, C. C. (2013). The effect of authentic leadership on employee trust and employee engagement. Social Behavior and Personality: An Internation Journal, 41(2), 613–624.

Wu, F. (2009). “The Relationship between Leadership Styles And Foreign English Teachers Job Satisfaction In Adult English Cram Schools: Eviences in Taiwan.†The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 14(2), 75-82.

Yean, T. F., Johanim, J., & Khulida, K. Y. (2016). The mediating role of learning goal orientation in the relationship between work engagement and innovative work behavior. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(S7), 169-174.

Zhang, T. (2010). The Relationship between Perceived Leadership Styles and Employee Engagement : The Moderating Role Of Employee Characteristics, (Doctoral dissertation, Sydney Australia), 1–285. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/02whole.pdf%20(1).pdf.




How to Cite

Ibnu Ruslan, R., Islam, M. A., Mohd Noor, I., Mat, N., & Amiruddin, A. A. (2019). Organizational Commitment And Employee Engagement Among Administrators In Public Universities In Malaysia. Sains Humanika, 11(2-2).