Reflective –Formative Measurement Model of Social Factors and Willlingness To Share Knowledge


  • Norfadzilah Abdul Razak School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06100 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Faizuniah Pangil School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06100 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Md Lazim Mohd Zin School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06100 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia



Reflective measurement model, formative measurement model, social factors, willingness to share knowledge


This paper aims to investigate the convergent and construct validity between reflective and formative measurement model. The difference assessment presents a different result of the validity. This paper analysed the reflective construct followed by formative measurement of second-order constructs (i.e., social factors and willingness to share knowledge) using SmartPLS. The data were collected from 150 of the knowledge worker in the ICT industry which registered in a MSC Company. The finding confirmed the indicator and construct examined in the model were valid and reliable. Furthermore, details of discriminant validity, collinearity, tolerance, and variance influence factor were also further discussed. The implication of this finding are brought to fore.


Akter, S., D'Ambra, J., & Ray, P. (2011). Trustworthiness in Health Information Services: An Assessment of a Hierarchical Model With Mediating And Moderating Effects Using Partial Least Squares (PLS). Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(1), 100-116.

Alvani S.M, Elyasi Q.M, Vakili Y., (2013). The Pattern Of Knowledge Sharing In The Organization With Social Interaction Approach: A Case Study in the Research Department of National Iranian oil engineering and Construction Company. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 2(3), 777-789 ISSN 1805-3602.

Baalen, P.V., Dalen, J.V., & Malsen, J.V., (2013). Relational Model Conflicts in Knowledge Sharing Relations.

Baron, R.A. And Markman, G.D. (2000), Beyond Social Capital: How Social Skills Can Enhance Entrepreneurs. The Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 106-16.

Bartol, K. M., & Srivastava, A. (2002). Encouraging Knowledge Sharing: The Role of Organizational Reward Systems. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(1), 64-76.

Boer, N. I., Berends, H., & Van Baalen, P., (2011). Relational Models for Knowledge Sharing Behavior. European Management Journal, 29(2), 85-97.

Bouty, I. (2000). Interpersonal and Interaction Influences On Informal Resource Exchanges between R&D Researchers Across Organizational Boundaries. Academy of Management Journal, 43(1), 50-66.

Chin W., (2010) How to write up and report PLS analyses. In: EspositoVinzi V, Chin WW, Henseler J, Wang H (eds) Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods, And Applications. Springer, Heidelberg, 655–690.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The Partial Least Squares Approach To Structural Equation Modelling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern Methods for Business Research, 295–336. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing Validity: Basic Issues in Objective Scale Development. Psychological Assessment, 7, 309–319

Cummings, J. (2003). Knowledge Sharing: A Review of the Literature. Retrieved from: Http://www.Lnweb18.Worldbank.Org/Oed/Oeddoclib.Nsf/Docunidviewforjavasearch/ D9E389E7414BE9DE85256DC600572Cao/$File/Knowledge_Eval_Literaturereview

Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2006). Formative vs. Reflective Indicators In Organizational Measure Development: A Comparison And Empirical Illustration. British Journal of Management, 17(4), 263–282

Edwards JR, Bagozzi R.P. (2000) On the Nature and Direction of Relationships between Constructs and Measures. Psychology Methods, 5, 155–174.

Elham, A., Rosman, M.Y., & Nik, H.N.M (2012). Determinants of Knowledge Sharing Behavior. Proceeding of International Conference On Economics. Business and Marketing Management, 29, 205-215.

Fornell, C. G., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50

Fiske,A. P. (1992).The Four Elementary Forms of Sociality: Framework For A Unified Theory of Social Relations. Psychological Review, 99, 689–723.

Friesl, M., Sackmann, S.A. and Kremser, S. (2011). Knowledge Sharing in New Organizational Entities: The Impact of Hierarchy, Organizational Context, Micro-Politics and Suspicion. Cross-Cultural Management: An International Journal, 18(1), 71-86.

Gold, A.H., A. Malhotra, and A.H. Segars (2001). Knowledge Management: An Organizational Capabilities Perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Hair, J.F., Andersen, R.E., and. Tatham, R.L., (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7thed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010

Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T., Ringle C.M., Sarsted, M., (2016). A premier on Partial Least Square-Structural Equation model (PLS-SEM), Second Edition. Los Angeles: Sage.

Hair, Joseph F., Christian M. Ringle and Marko Sarstedt (2011a), ‘PLS-SEM: Indeed, a Silver Bullet', Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2),139-151.

Hargadon, A.W., (1998). Firms as Knowledge Brokers: Lessons in Pursuing Continuous Innovation. California Management Review, 40(3), 209.

Haslam, N., & Fiske, A. P. (1999). Relational Models Theory: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Personal Relationships, 6(2), 241-250.

Hooff, B. V. D. & Hendrix, L. (2004). Eagerness and Willingness to Share: The Relevance of Different Attitudes towards Knowledge Sharing.

Kim, J. W., Choi, J., Qualls, W., & Han, K. (2008). It Takes a Marketplace Community to Raise Brand Commitment: The Roles of Online Communities. Journal of Marketing Management, 24(3–4), 409–431.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modelling (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press

Kowta Sita Nirmala Kumaraswamy C.M. Chitale, (2012), Collaborative Knowledge Sharing Strategy to Enhance Organizational Learning, Journal of Management Development, 31(3), 308 – 322.

Lee, D. C., Hung, L. M., & Chen, M. L. (2012). Empirical Study on the Influence among Corporate Sponsorship, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Cohesiveness and Turnover Intention. Journal of Management and Sustainability, 2(2), 43.

Levin, D.Z., & Cross, R., (2004). The Strength Of Weak Ties You Can Trust: The Mediating Role Of Trust In Effective Knowledge Transfer. Management Sciences, 50(11), 1477-1490

Lin, H.F., (2007). Effects of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation on Employee Knowledge Sharing Intentions. Journal of Information Science, 33(2), 135–149.

Lin, T. C., Wu, S., & Lu, C. T. (2012). Exploring the Affect Factors of Knowledge Sharing Behavior: The Relations Model Theory Perspective. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(1), 751-764.

Loebecke, C., Fenema, P.C., Powell, P. (2016). Managing Inter-Organizational Knowledge Sharing. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems Volume, 25(1), 4-14

Menon, T., Thompson, L., & Choi, H. S. (2006). Tainted Knowledge Vs. Tempting Knowledge: People Avoid Knowledge from Internal Rivals and Seek Knowledge from External Rivals. Management Science, 52(8), 1129-1144.

Multimedia Development Corporation (MDEC), Malaysia. (1999). Retrieved 11 February 2011 from

Noorderhaven, N., and Harzing, A. W. (2009). Knowledgeâ€Sharing and Social Interaction within MNEs. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(5), 719â€741.

Rossiter J. R. (2000). The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 19(4), 305–335.

Teo, H.H., K.K. Wei, and I. Benbasat (2003). Predicting Intention to Adopt Inter-Organizational Linkages: An Institutional Perspective. MIS Quarterly, 27(1), 19–50.

Triandis, H. C. (1980). Values, Attitudes, and Interpersonal Behavior. In Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1979: Belief, Attitudes, And Values, 195–259. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Vodosek, M. (2009). The Correspondence between Relational Models and Individualism and Collectivism: Evidence from Culturally Diverse Work Groups. International Journal of Psychology, 44, 120-128.

Wasko, M. M., & Faraj, S. (2005). Why Should I Share? Examining Social Capital and Knowledge Contribution in Electronic Networks of Practice. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 35–57.

Widmeyer, W.N., Brawley, L.R., & Carron, A.V. (1985). The Measurement of Cohesion in Sports Teams: The Group Environment Questionnaire. London, ON: Sports Dynamics.

Yen, Y.-R. (2009). An Empirical Analysis of Relationship Commitment and Trust in Virtual Programmer Community. International Journal of Computers, 3(1), 171–180.

Zaid, T.A., Zainuddin, H., Abdallah, M.A., (2013). An Updated Model to Enhance Knowledge Sharing Among Stakeholders n Jordanian Hospitals Using Social Networks. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 18(8), 1089.




How to Cite

Abdul Razak, N., Pangil, F., & Mohd Zin, M. L. (2019). Reflective –Formative Measurement Model of Social Factors and Willlingness To Share Knowledge. Sains Humanika, 11(2-2).