Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal (EPA): Does Distributive Fairness and Employee Participation Matter?: A Conceptual Framework


  • Suleiman Abubakar Babagana School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Norsiah Mat School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Hadziroh Ibrahim School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia




Performance appraisal, distributive fairness, employee participation, effective performance appraisal


There has been a great deal of research into performance appraisal, especially concerning the factors that influence the effectiveness of performance appraisal (EPA). Studies suggest that elements such as organizational fairness, organizational politics, and leadership style may contribute to the EPA. Regardless of the evidence of research on these issues, there is paucity of research linking the impact of distributive fairness on the EPA. Moreover, prior studies, similar to this, have reported mixed findings. Accordingly, this study proposes the moderating role of employee participation in the relationship between distributive fairness and the EPA.  


Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances In Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 267-299. New York, NY: Academic Press

Addy, E., & Dzisi, S. (2014). The Effects of Performance Appraisal on Lecturers’ Productivity: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic. International Journal of Technology and Management Research, 1(3), 1-7.

Ahmed, I., & Sattar, A. (2018). The Influence of Justice Perceptions on Performance Appraisal Reactions in Telecom Sector of Pakistan. Global Management Journal for Academic & Corporate Studies, 8(1), 86-100.

Apak, S., Gümüş, S., Öner, G., & Gümüş, H. G. (2016). Performance Appraisal and A Field Study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 104-114.

Avazpour, R., Ebrahimi, E., & Fathi, M. R. (2013). A 360 Degree Feedback Model For Performance Appraisal Based On Fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS. International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 2(11), 969-976.

Babagana, Mat & Ibrahim. (2018). Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal (EPA): Does Employee Participation Matter?. PROCEEDINGS OF NHRMC 2018, 89.

Babagana, S. A. (2014). Effects of Selected Human Resource (HR) Practices on Nigerian Polytechnics Lecturers’ Performances. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 19(5), 72-81.

Babagana, S. A., Mat, N. B., & Ibrahim, H. B. (2019a). Moderating Effect of Employee Participation on Factors that Determine Effective Performance Appraisal (EPA): Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis. International Journal of Academic Research Business and Social Sciences, 9(4), 116– 134.

Babagana, S.A., Mat, N. B., Ibrahim, H. B. (2019b). Determinants of Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal (EPA) for Academics in Nigerian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs): A Pilot Study, International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, 9 (1), 11-20.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator–Mediator Variable Distinction In Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, And Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality And Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173.

Basterretxea, I., & Storey, J. (2018). Do Employeeâ€Owned Firms Produce More Positive Employee Behavioural Outcomes? If Not Why Not? A Britishâ€Spanish Comparative Analysis. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 56(2), 292-319.

Bekele, A. Z., Shigutu, A. D., & Tensay, A. T. (2014). The Effect of Employees’Perception of Performance Appraisal on their Work Outcomes. International Journal of Management and Commerce Innovations, 2(1), 136-173.

Bhatti, K. K., & Qureshi, T. M. (2007). Impact Of Employee Participation On Job Satisfaction, Employee Commitment And Employee Productivity. International Review Of Business Research Papers, 3(2), 54-68.

Buller, P. F., & Mcevoy, G. M. (2012). Strategy, Human Resource Management and Performance: Sharpening Line of Sight. Human Resource Management Review, 22(1), 43-56.

Cawley, B. D., Keeping, L. M., & Levy, P. E. (1998). Participation in the Performance Appraisal Process and Employee Reactions: A Meta-Analytic Review of Field Investigations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(4), 615.

Cheng, S. Y. (2014). The Mediating Role Of Organizational Justice On The Relationship Between Administrative Performance Appraisal Practices And Organizational Commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(8), 1131-1148.

Christopher, K., Gregory, N., Alice, C., & Elizabeth, N. M. (2017). Determinants of Effectiveness of Employee Performance Appraisal System in Institution of Higher Learning: A Survey of Public Universities in Nakuru County.

Collins, B. J., & Mossholder, K. W. (2017). Fairness Means More To Some Than Others: Interactional Fairness, Job Embeddedness, And Discretionary Work Behaviors. Journal of Management, 43(2), 293-318.

Collins, B. J., Mossholder, K. W., & Taylor, S. G. (2012). Does Process Fairness Affect Job Performance? It Only Matters If They Plan To Stay. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(7), 1007-1026.

Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the Millennium: A Meta-Analytic Review Of 25 Years Of Organizational Justice Research. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425.

Colquitt, J. A., LePine, J. A., Piccolo, R. F., Zapata, C. P., & Rich, B. L. (2012). Explaining The Justice–Performance Relationship: Trust As Exchange Deepener Or Trust As Uncertainty Reducer?. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), 1.

Cropanzano, R., & Randall, M. L. (1993). Injustice and Work Behavior: A Historical Review. In R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Series In Applied Psychology. Justice In The Workplace: Approaching Fairness In Human Resource Management, 3-20. Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Daoanis, L. E. (2012). Performance Appraisal System: It’s Implication to Employee Performance. International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 2(3), 55-62.

Dawud, J., Pradesa, H. A., & Afandi, M. N. (2018). Distributive and Procedural Justice, Perceived Organizational Support, and Its Effect on Organizational Commitment in Public Organization. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(12), 1675–1188.

DeNisi, A. S., & Murphy, K. R. (2017). Performance Appraisal And Performance Management: 100 Years Of Progress?. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 421.

Edwards, M.R. (1983). Productivity Improvement through Innovations in Performance Appraisal. Public Personnel Management, 12(1), 13 – 24.

Egginton, B. E. (2010). Introduction of Formal Performance Appraisal of Academic Staff: The Management Challenges Associated with Effective Implementation. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 38(1), 119–133

Emamzadeh Ghasemi, H. S., Vanaky, Z., Salehi, T., & Salsali, M. (2007). Management by Objective Approach in Nursing Performance Appraisal and its Impact on Quality of Nursing Care. Journal of Hayat, 13(3), 5-15.

Erez, M., & Kanfer, F. H. (1983). The Role Of Goal Acceptance In Goal Setting And Task Performance. Academy of Management Review, 8(3), 454-463.

Fajana, S., Owoyemi, O., Elegbede, T. & Gbajumo-Sheriff, M. (2011). Human Resource Management Practices in Nigeria. Journal of Management and Strategy, 2(2), 57.

Fletcher, Clive. (2001): "Performance Appraisal And Management: The Developing Research Agenda." Journal Of Occupational And Organizational Psychology 74(4), 473-487.

Gabriel, C. A., & Bond, C. (2019). Need, Entitlement and Desert: A Distributive Justice Framework for Consumption Degrowth. Ecological Economics, 156, 327-336.

Getnet, B., Jebena, T., & Tsegaye, A. (2014). The effect Of Employee’s Fairness Perception On Their Satisfaction Towards The Performance Appraisal Practices (A case study of University of Gondar). International Journal of Management and Commerce Innovations, 2(1), 174-210.

Giangreco, A., Carugati, A., Sebastiano, A., & Al Tamimi, H. (2012). War Outside, Ceasefire Inside: An Analysis Of The Performance Appraisal System Of A Public Hospital In A Zone Of Conflict. Evaluation And Program Planning, 35(1), 161-170.

Glavas, A. (2016). Corporate social responsibility and employee engagement: Enabling Employees To Employ More Of Their Whole Selves At Work. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 796.

Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational justice: Yesterday, Today, And Tomorrow. Journal Of Management, 16(2), 399-432.

Guest, D. E. (1997). Human Resource Management and Performance: A Review and Research Agenda. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(3), 263-276.

Han, T. S., Chiang, H. H., & Chang, A. (2010). Employee Participation in Decision Making, Psychological Ownership and Knowledge Sharing: Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment in Taiwanese High-Tech Organizations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(12), 2218-2233.

Harrington, J. R., & Lee, J. H. (2015). What Drives Perceived Fairness Of Performance Appraisal? Exploring The Effects Of Psychological Contract Fulfillment On Employees’ Perceived Fairness Of Performance Appraisal In US Federal Agencies. Public PersonnelManagement, 44(2), 214-238.

Heery, E., & Noon, M. (2008). A Dictionary Of Human Resource Management. OUP Oxford.

Hoe, S. L. (2008). Issues and Procedures In Adopting Structural Equation Modeling Technique. Journal Of Applied Quantitative Methods, 3(1), 76-83.

Ibeogu, P. H., & Ozturen, A. (2015). Perception of Justice In Performance Appraisal And Effect On Satisfaction: Empirical Findings from Northern Cyprus Banks. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 964-969.

Idowu, A. (2017). Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal System and its Effect on Employee Motivation. Nile Journal of Business and Economics, 3(5), 15-39.

Ikramullah, M., Shah, B., Khan, S., Hassan, F. S. U., & Zaman, T. (2012). Purposes of Performance Appraisal System: A Perceptual Study of Civil Servants in District Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(3), 142.

Ikramullah, M., Van Prooijen, J. W., Iqbal, M. Z., & Ul-Hassan, F. S. (2016). Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Developing a Conceptual Framework Using Competing Values Approach. Personnel Review, 45(2), 334-352.

Iqbal, M. Z., Akbar, S., & Budhwar, P. (2015). Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: An Integrated Framework. International Journal of Management Reviews, 17(4), 510-533.

Iqbal, M. Z., Akbar, S., Budhwar, P., & Shah, S. Z. A. (2019). Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Evidence On The Utilization Criteria. Journal of Business Research, 101, 285-299.

Irawanto, D. W. (2015). Employee Participation in Decision Making: Evidence from State Owned Enterprise in Indonesia. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 20(1), 159-172.

Islami, X., Mulolli, E., & Mustafa, N. (2018). Using Management by Objectives as a Performance Appraisal Tool For Employee Satisfaction. Future Business Journal, 4(1), 94-108.

Ismail, A., Mohamed, N. A. K., & Rayee, M. R. (2017). Relationship Between Performance Appraisal Communication, Procedural Justice And Job Satisfaction. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 12(2), 15-26

Jacobs, R., Thoroughgood, C., & Sawyer, K. (2011). Appraising and Managing Police Officer Performance. Handbook of Police Psychology, 165.

Jawahar, I. M. (2007). The Influence Of Perceptions Of Fairness On Performance Appraisal Reactions. Journal of Labor Research, 28(4), 735-754.

Jaworski, B. J. 1988. Toward a Theory of Marketing Control: Environmental Context, Control Types, and Consequences. The Journal of Marketing. 52, 23–39.

Kampkotter, P. (2016). Performance Appraisals and Job Satisfaction. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(5), 750-774.

Karkoulian, S., Assaker, G., & Hallak, R. (2016). An Empirical Study Of 360-Degree Feedback, Organizational Justice, And Firm Sustainability. Journal Of Business Research, 69(5), 1862-1867.

Khedkar, E. B. (2015). Analysis of Performance Appraisal Systems in Education Sector. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, 4(6), 121-132.

Kim, S. E., & Rubianty, D. (2011). Perceived Fairness Of Performance Appraisals In The Federal Government: Does It Matter?. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 31(4), 329-348.

Kingdon, G. G., & Teal, F. (2007). Does Performance Related Pay for Teachers Improve Student Performance? Some Evidence from India. Economics of Education Review, 26(4), 473-486.

Kleingeld, A. D., Van Tuijl, H., & Algera, J. A. (2004). Participation in the Design Of Performance Management Systems: A Quasiâ€Experimental Field Study. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 25(7), 831-851.

Koonmee, K. (2011). Fairness in the Workplace: The Relative Effects Of Distributive And Procedural Justice On Incentive Satisfaction. The Business Review, 17(2), 160-166.

Krishnan, R., Ahmad, N. A. F. binti, & Haron, H. (2018). The Effect of Employees’ Perceived Fairness of Performance Appraisal Systems on Employees’ Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(3), 448–465.

Kura, K. M., Shamsudin, F. M., & Chauhan, A. (2013). Self-Regulatory Efficacy As Potential Moderator On The Relationship Between Organisational Formal Controls, Perceived Group Norms And Workplace Deviance: A Proposed Framework. Sains Humanika, 64(2), 33-38

Latham, G. P., & Yukl, G. A. (1975). Assigned Versus Participative Goal Setting With Educated And Uneducated Woods Workers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(3), 299.

Leventhal, G.S. (1980), “What should be done with equity theory?â€, in Gergen, K.J., Greenberg, M.S. and Willis, R.H. (Eds), Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research, Plenum, New York, NY, 27-55.

Likert, R. (1967). The human organization: its management and values. New York, McGraw-Hill.

Linde, H. M., & Visagie, J. C. (2017). Determining the Relationship between Employee Participation and Union Membership. Journal of Social Sciences, 51(1-3), 211-220.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A Theory Of Goal Setting & Task Performance. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Lucas, T., Strelan, P., Karremans, J. C., Sutton, R. M., Najmi, E., & Malik, Z. (2018). When Does Priming Justice Promote Forgiveness? On The Importance Of Distributive And Procedural Justice For Self And Others. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(5), 471-484.

Luo, Y. (2007). The Independent And Interactive Roles Of Procedural, Distributive, And Interactional Justice In Strategic Alliances. Academy of Management Journal, 50(3), 644-664.

MacKinnon, D. P. (2011). Integrating Mediators And Moderators In Research Design. Research On Social Work Practice, 21(6), 675-681.

Mathis, L. & Jackson, J. H., (2004).Human Resource Management (10thedn). International Students Edition. USA: South Western, Thomson Learning.

McConkie, M. L. (1979). A Clarification Of The Goal Setting And Appraisal Processes in MBO. Academy of Management Review, 4(1), 29-40.

McFarlin, D. B., & Sweeney, P. D. (1992). Distributive and Procedural Justice As Predictors Of Satisfaction With Personal And Organizational Outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3), 626-637.

Meena, K., & Vanka, S. (2017). Developing an Empirical Typology Of Diversity-Oriented Human Resource Management Practices. Journal of Management Development, 36(7), 915-929.

Miller, K. I., & Monge, P. R. (1986). Participation, Satisfaction, And Productivity: A Meta-Analytic Review. Academy of management Journal, 29(4), 727- 753.

Moradi, T., Mehraban, M. A., & Moeini, M. (2017). Comparison of the Perceptions Of Managers and Nursing Staff Toward Performance Appraisal. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 22(2), 128.

Mulvaney, M. A. (2017). Examining The Role of Employee Participation, Supervisor Trust, and Appraisal Reactions For A Pay-For-Performance Appraisal System. Public Organization Review, 1-25.

Nair, M. S., & Salleh, R. (2015). Linking Performance Appraisal Justice, Trust, And Employee Engagement: A Conceptual Framework. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, 1155-1162.

Nielsen, K., & Randall, R. (2012). The Importance of Employee Participation and Perceptions of Changes in Procedures in a Team working Intervention. Work & Stress, 26(2), 91-111.

Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2017). Human Resource Management: Gaining A Competitive Advantage. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Ömer, A. V. C. I. (2016). Goal Setting Theory: What It Implies for Strategic Human Resource Development. Maliye Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1(3), 39-46

Othman, N. (2014). Employee Performance Appraisal Satisfaction: The Case Evidence from Brunei's Civil Service. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manchester).

Palaiologos, A., Papazekos, P., & Panayotopoulou, L. (2011). Organizational Justice And Employee Satisfaction In Performance Appraisal. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(8), 826-840.

Phin, L. W. (2015). The Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal in the Private Education Industry in Malaysia. International Journal of Business & Information, 10(1), 95-124

Phuong, T. H. (2018). Perceived Justice In Performance Appraisal Among Vietnamese Employees: Antecedents And Consequences. International Journal of Business Excellence, 15(2), 209-221.

Poole, M. (2017). Towards a New Industrial Democracy: Workers' Participation In Industry. Routledge.

Poppo, L., & Zhou, K. Z. (2014). Managing contracts for fairness in buyer–supplier exchanges. Strategic Management Journal, 35(10), 1508-1527.

Rasmussen, E. (2009). Employee Participation And Industrial Democracy. Rasmussen, E., Employment Relations in New Zealand (2ndEd.), 493-514.

Richardson, M., Danford, A., Stewart, P., & Pulignano, V. (2010). Employee Participation and Involvement: Experiences of Aerospace and Automobile Workers in the UK and Italy. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 16(1), 21-37.

Roberts, G. E. (2003). Employee Performance Appraisal System Participation: A Technique that Works. Public Personnel Management, 32(1), 89-98.

Rogiest, S., Segers, J., & van Witteloostuijn, A. (2018). Matchmaking in Organizational Change: Does Every Employee Value Participatory Leadership? An Empirical Study. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 34(1), 1-8.

Rubin, E. V., & Edwards, A. (2018). The Performance Of Performance Appraisal Systems: Understanding The Linkage Between Appraisal Structure And Appraisal Discrimination Complaints. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-20. doi:10.1080/09585192.2018.1424015

Rukumba, S., & Iravo, M. A. (2019). Influence of Performance Management on the Performance of Telecommunication industry In Kenya. Human Resource and Leadership Journal, 4(1), 1-12.

Rusli, A., & Sopian, B. (2013). Issues and Challenges in the Practice of Performance Appraisal Activities in the 21 Century. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(4), 1-8.

Saad, S. K. (2014). Investigating the Effectiveness of the Performance Appraisal Process in the Egyptian Tourism Companies. Journal of Association of Arab Universities for Tourism and Hospitality, 11(2), 111-121.

Saad, S. K., & Elshaer, I. A. (2017). Organizational politics and validity of layoff decisions: Mediating Role Of Distributive Justice Of Performance Appraisal. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 26(8), 805-828.

Salleh, M., Amin, A., Muda, S., & Halim, M. A. S. A. (2013). Fairness of Performance Appraisal And Organizational Commitment. Asian Social Science, 9(2), 121.

Samarakone, P. (2010). Improving Performance Appraisals Using a Real-Time Talent Management System: The Advantages of a Real-Time Talent Management System. Human Resource Management International Digest, 18(4), 35-37.

Sharma, N. P., Sharma, T., & Agarwal, M. N. (2016). Measuring Employee Perception Of Performance Management System Effectiveness: Conceptualization And Scale Development. Employee Relations, 38(2), 224-247.

Shin, J. C., Toutkoushian, R. K., & Teichler, U. (Eds.). (2011). University Rankings: Theoretical Basis, Methodology and Impacts on Global Higher Education, 3. Springer Science & Business Media.

Singh, P. (2015). Performance Appraisal: Participation of Employees. International Journal Of Education And Management Studies, 5(3), 264.

Smither, J. W., & London, M. (Eds.). (2009). Performance Management: Putting Research Into Action,. 21. John Wiley & Sons.

Spitzbart, I. (2013). The impact Of Transactional Versus Transformational Leadership On Job Satisfaction In The Hotel Industry. Research in Hospitality Management, 3(1), 69-76.

Sudin, S. (2011). Fairness of and Satisfaction With Performance Appraisal Process. Journal of Global Management, 2(1), 66-83.

Summers, J., & Hyman, J. (2005). Employee Participation and Company Performance: A Literature Review. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, University Of Aberdeen. ISBN, 1(85935), 299.

Swanepoel, S., Botha, P. A., & Mangonyane, N. B. (2014). Politicisation of Performance Appraisals. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(1), 1- 9.

Tafvelin, S., von Thiele Schwarz, U., Nielsen, K., & Hasson, H. (2019). Employees' and Line Managers' Active Involvement In Participatory Organizational Interventions: Examining Direct, Reversed, And Reciprocal Effects On Wellâ€being. Stress and Health, 35(1), 69-80.

Thomas, S. L., & Bretz Jr, R. D. (1994). Research and Practice In Performance Appraisal: Evaluating Employee Performance In America's Largest Companies. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 59(2), 28.

Timming, A. R. (2015). The ‘Reach’of Employee Participation in Decisionâ€Making: Exploring the A Ristotelian Roots of Workplace Democracy. Human Resource Management Journal, 25(3), 382-396.

Wainaina, L., Iravo, M., & Waititu, A. (2014). Effect of Employee Participation in Decision Making on the Organizational Commitment Amongst Academic Staff In The Private and Public Universities in Kenya. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 3(12), 131-142.

Walsh, M. B. (2003) Perceived Fairness of and Satisfaction with Employee Performance Appraisal, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Louisiana State University.

Wang, T., Thornhill, S., & Zhao, B. (2018). Payâ€forâ€Performance, Employee Participation, And SME Performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 56(3), 412-434.

Wang, T., Zhao, B., & Thornhill, S. (2015). Pay Dispersion And Organizational Innovation: The Mediation Effects Of Employee Participation And Voluntary Turnover. Human Relations, 68(7), 1155-1181.

Warokka, A., Gallato, C. G., Thamendren, A., & Moorthy, L. (2012). Organizational Justice In Performance Appraisal System And Work Performance: Evidence From An Emerging Market. Journal of Human Resources Management Research, 2012, 1.

Williams, B. N., Christensen, R. K., Lepere-Schloop, M., & Silk, P. D. (2015). Appraising the Appraisal Process: Manager and Patrol Officer Perspectives. The Police Journal, 88(3), 231-250.

Wong, Y. T., Wong, Y. W., & Wong, C. S. (2015). An integrative model of turnover intention: Antecedents and their effects on employee performance in Chinese joint ventures. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, 6(1), 71-90.

Wooten, W., & Burroughs, W. A. (1991). Setting measurable goals for better performance. Supervisory Management. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/magazine/1G1-11705485/setting-measurable-goals-for-better-performance

Wright, R. P. (2004). Mapping Cognitions to Better Understand Attitudinal and Behavioral Responses in Appraisal Research. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 25(3), 339-374.

Zhu, Y., Xie, Y., Warner, M., & Guo, Y. (2015). Employee Participation and the Influence on Job Satisfaction of the ‘New Generation’of Chinese Employees. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(19), 2395-2411.

Zwick, T. (2003). Works Councils and The Productivity Impact of Direct Employee Participation (No. 03-47). ZEW Discussion Papers.

Zwick, T. (2004). Employee Participation and Productivity. Labour Economics, 11(6), 715-740.




How to Cite

Babagana, S. A., Mat, N., & Ibrahim, H. (2019). Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal (EPA): Does Distributive Fairness and Employee Participation Matter?: A Conceptual Framework. Sains Humanika, 11(2-2). https://doi.org/10.11113/sh.v11n2-2.1654