Relationship between Mothers’ and Fathers’ Parenting Styles and Truancy amongst Primary School Children/ Hubungan antara Gaya Keibubapaan Ibu dan Bapa dengan Masalah Ponteng dalam Kalangan Murid Sekolah Rendah


  • Azlina Mohd Kosnin School of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Sivasanthni R School of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Parenting Style, Truancy behaviour, Primary school


This study aimed to identify the relationship between parenting styles of mothers and fathers with truancy problems among primary school students. A total of 186 primary school students were involved in this study. This study is a descriptive study using questionnaire as a research instrument. Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles were measured through students’ perceptions of their mothers’ and father’s parenting style through the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri, 1991). Neglectful parenting style was measured using six items from the PAQ instrument that was adapted and added for neglectful style by Ofosu-Asiamah (2013). Truancy information is obtained through the number of truancy warning letters issued by the school to students’ parents. A total of 47 students had received the first, second and third Warning Letters; and the rest (139 people) had never received a warning letter. Descriptive statistics namely frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation were used to analyze the demographic data (gender, residence of respondents and occupation of respondents ’parents), types of warning letters and the most dominant parenting styles. Inferential statistics i.e., rank-Spearman analysis was used to analyze the relationship between maternal and paternal parenting styles with truancy. The results show that authoritative parenting style is the dominant parenting style among the mothers and fathers of the studied respondents. Significant relationships were only obtained for father’s authoritative style and both mother’s and father’s neglectful style with truancy. Father’s authoritative style was inversely and significantly related to truancy (r = - 0.15, p = 0.04) while truancy had positive relationships with mother’s neglectful style (r = 0.16, p = 0.03) and father’s neglectful style (r= - 0.14, p = 0.05). In conclusion, the parenting style of mother and father has a distinct effect on the child's behavior and in general both play an important role in guiding the child for their future.


Amran, M. S., & Basri, N. A. (2020). Investigating the Relationship between Parenting Styles and Juvenile Delinquent Behaviour. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(11A), 25-32.

Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4 (1p2), 1.

Bennett, S., Mazerolle, L., Antrobus, E., Eggins, E., & Piquero, A. R. (2018). Truancy Intervention Reduces Crime: Results from a Randomized Field Trial. Justice Quarterly, 35(2), 309-329.

Breda, M. J. v. (2014). Truants’ perceptions of family factors as causes of school truancy and non-attendance. Journal of Psychology, 5(1), 47-53.

Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119

Bezrukova, O., & Samoylova, V. (2015). The Authoritarian Syndrome in Attitudes and Educational Practices of Russian Parents. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 165, 234-240.

Carter, B.A. (2010). The advanced life circle, individual, family, and social perspectives.. Needham Itughts, MA. Allyn and Bacon.

Claes, E., Hooghe, M., & Reeskens, T. (2009). Truancy as a contextual and school‐related problem: A comparative multilevel analysis of country and school characteristics on civic knowledge among 14 year olds. Educational Studies, 35(2), 123–142.

Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, And Evaluating Quantitative And Qualitative Research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Desa, A., Yusooff, F., Zamani, Z. A., & Sani, M. N. M. (2015). Kemahiran Keibubapaan, Kefungsian Keluarga Dan Kesejahteraan Psikologi Dalam Kalangan Ibu bapa (Parenting Skills, Family Functioning And Psychological Well-Being Among Parents). Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 29(2), 32-42

Jadon, P. S., & Tripathi, S. (2017). Effect of authoritarian parenting style on self-esteem of the child: A systematic review. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, 3(3), 909-913. Diperolehi daripada Diakses pada 20 Mei 2022

Keppens, G., Spruyt, B., & Dockx, J. (2019). Measuring School Absenteeism: Administrative Attendance Data Collected by Schools Differ From Self-Reports in Systematic Ways. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(2623). Diperolehi daripada, Diakses pada 29 Ogos 2022

Lamborn, S. D., Mounts, N. S., Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 62(5), 1049-1065.

Norsiah Abd. Wahab (2014). Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi masalah ponteng di sekolah menengah daerah Segamat. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Education.

Nur Azna Mahmud, S. Maria Awaluddin, Norzawati Yoep, Wan Shakira Rodzlan Hasani, Jane Ling Miaw Yn & Lim Kuang Kuay (2019). Association of Truancy and Health Risk Behaviours among School-Going Adolescents in Malaysia, Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 228-237.

Nwune, E.C., Okwuduba, E.N. & Anidi, A.C. (2021). Parenting Styles As A Correlate Of Academic Achievement Of Primary School Pupils In Awka South, Nigeria, Plus Education, 28(1), 30-39.

Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen & E. M. Hetherington, Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Maccoby, E.E. (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1006-1017.

Ofosu-Asiamah, D. K. (2013). Examining the effects of parenting styles on academic performance of Senior High School students in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality, Ashanti Region. Tesis Sarjana, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana.

Othman, N., & Khairollah, S. (2013). Explorasi Hubungan antara Personaliti Islamik dan Gaya Keibubapaan/Exploring the Relationship between Islamic Personality and Parenting Style. International Journal of Islamic Thought, 4, 48.

Power, T.G. (2013). Parenting Dimensions and Styles: A Brief History And Recommendations For Future Research. Child Obesity. 2013 Aug; 9 Suppl (Suppl 1):S14-21. Diperolehi daripada

Ruchkin, V. V., Eisemann, M., Koposov, R. A., & Hägglöf, B. (2000). Family functioning, parental rearing and behavioural problems in delinquents. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy: An International Journal of Theory & Practice, 7(4), 310-319.

Suboh, A., Azizi, N., & Hamzah, M. (2011). Masalah Salah Laku Agresif Di Kalangan Pelajar Sekolah Rendah Dan Hubungannya Dengan Gaya Keibubapaan Sekolah Menengah Kampung Baru, N. Sembilan. Journal of Education Psychology & Counseling, 1(3), 77-93.

Shah, I. M. (2004). Konsep kendiri dan pencapaian akademik golongan remaja: melihat sejauhmana gaya asuhan ibu bapa sebagai moderator. Jurnal Teknologi, 40(1), 33-44.

Simons, L. G., & Conger, R. D. (2007). Linking Mother-Father Differences in Parenting to a Typology of Family Parenting Styles and Adolescent Outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 28(2), 212–241.

Sutphen, R. D., Ford, J. P., & Flaherty, C. (2010). Truancy interventions: A review of the research literature. Research on Social Work Practice, 20(2), 161-171.

Tapia, M., Alarid, L.F. & Clare, C. (2018). Parenting Styles and Juvenile Delinquency: Exploring Gendered Relationships. Juvenile Family Court Journal, 69 (2), 21-36.

Wulandari, D. (2018). Hubungan gaya asuhan ibu bapa terhadap gejalap onteng menengah atas di bandar Malang Indonesia. Tesis Sarjana, Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Yahaya, A., Hashim, S., & Hamzah, M. (2012). Masalah Salah Laku Agresif Dalam Kalangan Pelajar Sekolah Rendah Dan Hubungannya Dengan Gaya Keibubapaan. Sains Humanika, 58(1), 91-103

Young, N. (2022). Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: The Effect of Maternal Substance Dependence on Harmful Parenting Behaviors in the United States. Undergraduate Senior Thesis, Princeton University. Diperolehi daripada Diakses pada 14 Julai 2022

Zhihai, Q., Ying, G., Jun, W., & Hongbo, Z. (2022). Associations of Parenting Style and Resilience With Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Chinese Middle School Students. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1-9, Diperolehi daripada, tarikh 20 Ogos 2022




How to Cite

Mohd Kosnin, A. ., & R, . S. . (2022). Relationship between Mothers’ and Fathers’ Parenting Styles and Truancy amongst Primary School Children/ Hubungan antara Gaya Keibubapaan Ibu dan Bapa dengan Masalah Ponteng dalam Kalangan Murid Sekolah Rendah. Sains Humanika, 14(3-2), 161–166.