The Freelancer: A Conceptual Review
Keywords:Entrepreneur, freelancer, contractor, boundary-less worker, portfolio-worker
This paper provides a detail review of Â conceptualization of a freelancer, describing its history, jobs, earnings, top hiring, freelancer countries, popular websites those serves as broker between employer and freelancer. Study also elaborate differences between an entrepreneur and a freelancer. Study supported by empirical evidences through a non-systematic narrative review of the existing literature. Study exposed facts about freelancers. Firstly, it was found that current organizational structure is changing to support labor market and technological changes, this shows sustainable growth in individual contractors, now referred as freelancer. Secondly, literature review shows that the freelancing is rooted back to 1970s and started growing continuously since 1980s. Thirdly, study distinguished Â that the entrepreneur is a person who engages service or product of someoneâ€™s to establishes a business; whereas a freelancer is a person who engages own-skills to serve client(s), he/she serves multiple clients for multiple job types. Lastly, empirical evidence shows that freelancing is still considered as a new and different area, researchers and policy makers may explore it further.
Arthur, Michael B, Claman, Priscilla H, & DeFillippi, Robert J. (1995). Intelligent Enterprise, Intelligent Careers. The Academy of Management Executive, 9(4), 7â€“20.
Arthur, Michael B, & Rousseau, Denise M. (1996). A Career Lexicon for the 21st Century. The Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), 28â€“39.
Ashford, Susan J, George, Elizabeth, & Blatt, Ruth. (2007). 2 Old Assumptions, New Work: The Opportunities and Challenges of Research on Nonstandard Employment. The Academy of Management Annals, 1(1), 65â€“117.
Baines, Susan. (1999). Servicing the Media: Freelancing, Teleworking and â€˜Enterprisingâ€™ Careers. New Technology, Work and Employment, 14(1), 18â€“31.
Barley, SR, & Kunda, G. (2004). Gurus, Hired Guns and Warm Bodies: Itinerant Experts in a Knowledge Economy.
Barley, Stephen R, & Kunda, Gideon. (2006). Contracting: A New Form of Professional Practice. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(1), 45â€“66.
Barth, James R, Yago, Glenn, & Zeidman, Betsy. (2006). Barriers to Entrepreneurship in Emerging Domestic Markets: Analysis and Recommendations. Santa Monica, CA: The Milken Institute.
Beste III, Frederick J. (1996). The Twelve (Almost) Sure-Fire Secrets to Entrepreneurial Success. Mid-Atlantic Venture Funds, LP.
Boyle, Emily. (1994). The rise of the Reluctant Entrepreneurs. International Small Business Journal, 12(2), 63â€“69.
Davenport, John. (2006). UK Film Companies: Projectâ€Based Organizations Lacking Entrepreneurship and Innovativeness? Creativity and Innovation Management, 15(3), 250â€“257.
DeFillippi, Robert J, & Arthur, Michael B. (1994). The Boundaryless Career: A Competencyâ€based Perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(4), 307â€“324.
DeFillippi, Robert J, & Arthur, Michael B. (1996). Boundaryless Contexts and Careers: A Competency-based Perspective. The Boundaryless Career, 116â€“131.
Dex, Shirley, Willis, Janet, Paterson, Richard, & Sheppard, Elaine. (2000). Freelance Workers and Contract Uncertainty: The Effects of Contractual Changes in the Television Industry. Work, Employment & Society, 14(2), 283â€“305.
Gandia, Ed. (2012). Data and Analysis of Freelancer Demographics, Earnings, Habits and Attitudes.
Goss, David, & Bridson, Joanna. (1998). Understanding Interim Management. Human Resource Management Journal, 8(4), 37â€“50.
Kirkpatrick, Ian, & Hoque, Kim. (2006). A Retreat from Permanent Employment? Accounting for the Rise of Professional Agency Work in UK Public Services. Work, Employment & Society, 20(4), 649â€“666.
Kitching, John, & Smallbone, David. (2012). Are Freelancers a Neglected Form of Small Business? Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19(1), 74â€“91.
Marler, Janet H, Woodard Barringer, Melissa, & Milkovich, George T. (2002). Boundaryless and Traditional Contingent Employees: Worlds Apart. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(4), 425â€“453.
Menger, Pierre-Michel. (1999). Artistic Labor Markets and Careers. Annual Review of Sociology, 25(1), 541â€“574.
Purcell, Kate Purcell John. (1998). In-sourcing, Outsourcing, and the Growth of Contingent Labour as Evidence of Flexible Employment Strategies. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 7(1), 39â€“59.
Quinn, James Brian. (1992). The Intelligent Enterprise A New Paradigm. The Executive, 6(4), 48-63.
Rodrigues, Ricardo A, & Guest, David. (2010). Have Careers Become Boundaryless? Human Relations, 63(8), 1157â€“1175.
Saundry, Richard, Stuart, Mark, & Antcliff, Valerie. (2007). Broadcasting Discontentâ€”Freelancers, Trade Unions and the Internet. New Technology, Work and Employment, 22(2), 178â€“191.
Stanworth, Celia, & Druker, Janet. (2006). Human Resource Solutions?: Dimensions of Employers' Use of Temporary Agency Labour in the UK. Personnel Review, 35(2), 175â€“190.
Stanworth, Celia, & Stanworth, John. (1995). The Selfâ€employed without Employeesâ€”Autonomous or Atypical? Industrial Relations Journal, 26(3), 221â€“229.
Stanworth, Celia, & Stanworth, John. (1997b). Managing an Externalised Workforce: Freelance Labourâ€use in the UK Book Publishing Industry. Industrial relations Journal, 28(1), 43â€“55.
Stephen, Fishman, & Lisa, Guerin. (2005). Working with Independent Contractors.
Storey, John, Salaman, Graeme, & Platman, Kerry. (2005). Living with Enterprise in an Enterprise Economy: Freelance and Contract Workers in the Media. Human Relations, 58(8), 1033â€“1054.
SÃ¼ÃŸ, Stefan, & Becker, Johannes. (2013). Competences as the Foundation of Employability: A Qualitative Study of German Freelancers. Personnel Review, 42(2), 223â€“240.
Tams, Svenja, & Arthur, Michael B. (2010). New Directions for Boundaryless Careers: Agency and Interdependence in a Changing World. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(5), 629â€“646.
Tench, Ralph, Fawkes, Johanna, & Palihawadana, Dayan. (2002). Freelancing: Issues and Trends for Public Relations Practice. Journal of Communication Management, 6(4), 311â€“322.
Ursell, Gillian. (2000). Television Production: Issues of Exploitation, Commodification and Subjectivity in UK Television Labour Markets. Media, Culture & Society, 22(6), 805â€“825.
Van den Born, Arjan, & Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen. (2013). Drivers of Freelance Career Success. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(1), 24â€“46. doi: 10.1002/job.1786.
Van den Born, JA. (2009). The Drivers of Career Success of The Job-hopping Professional in the New Networked Economy: The Challenges of Being an Entrepreneur and an Employee: Born to Grow.
VAN DER KAMP, KARS. (2011). The Rise of the ZZPâ€™er (Self-employed Professional) in the Dutch Construction Industry. Management and Innovation for a Sustainable Built Environment, Amsterdam, 20â€“23.