Investigating the Implementation of Higher Order Thinking Skills in Malaysian Classrooms: Insights from L2 Teaching Practices

Authors

  • Azian Abdul Aziz @Ahmad Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Fauziah Ismail Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Noor Mala Ibrahim Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Norhanim Abdul Samat Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11113/sh.v9n4-2.1361

Keywords:

Higher order thinking skills, creative thinking, critical thinking, classroom practice

Abstract

In preparing for the 21st century workforce, many education systems have integrated creative and critical thinking elements in the teaching and learning process by instilling higher order thinking skills (HOTS) in students. This research examines English language (L2) teachers’ awareness and practices in promoting HOTS in the English Language classrooms in Malaysia. Data were collected from practicing L2 teachers through questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and structured observations. Findings of this research suggest that implementation of HOTS in the L2 classroom is very minimal and hindered by various factors, particularly those related to student, pedagogical and institutional factors. This implies the need for a more holistic and integrated approach involving L2 teachers, students and administrators in ensuring the successful implementation of HOTS in the L2 classrooms. 

References

Anderson, L. W. and D. Krathwohl (eds.) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing a Revision of Bloom’s Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.

Angeli, C. and Valanides, N. (2009). Instructional effects on critical thinking: Performance on ill-defined issues. Learning and Instruction. 19, 322–334.

Astington, J. W., & Olson, D. R. (1990). Metacognitive and Metalinguistic Language: Learning To Talk About Thought. Applied Psychology: An International Review. 39, 77-87.

Bacon, C.S. and Thayer-Bacon B. J. (1993). "Real Talk": Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills through Conversation in the Classroom. The Clearing House. 66 (3), 181-184.

Barahal, S. (2008) Thinking about Thinking: Pre¬service Teachers Strengthen their Thinking Artfully. Phi Delta Kappan 90 (4). 298–302.

Barak, M. and Dori, Y.J. (2009). Enhancing Higher Order Skills Among Inservice Science Teachers Via Embedded Assessment. Journal Science Teacher Education. 20, 459-474.

Barell, J. (1991) Self-reflection on your teaching: A checklist. In Costa, A. L. (Ed), Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching Thinking. Revised Edition, Volume 1. United Sttaes of America. ASCD.

Brookhart, S.M. (2010). How to Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom. Virginia USA. ASCD Alexandria.

Donahoo, S. (2012). Should all forms of ability grouping be eliminated in Schools? In Brown, F., Hunter, R.C., and Donahoo, S. (Eds). Diversity in Schools. Thousand Oaks. Sage.

Dwee, C. Y., Anthony, E. M., Salleh, B. M., Kamarulzaman, R., & Kadir, Z. A. (2016). Creating Thinking Classrooms: Perceptions and Teaching Practices of ESP Practitioners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 631-639.

Erduran S. and Msimanga A., (2014), Science Curriculum Reform In South Africa: Lessons For Professional Development From Research On Argumentation In Science Education. Education as Change. 18(1). 33–46.

Fern, C. C. S., and Umi Kalsum, M. S. (2015). The emphasis of Higher Order Thinking (HOT) in the curriculum and the implementation in reality. In Knowledge, Service, Tourism & Hospitality: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Management and Technology in Knowledge, Service, Tourism & Hospitality 2015 (SERVE 2015), Bandung, Indonesia, 1-2 August 2015 (p. 61). CRC Press.

Fogarty, R. (2009). Brain-compatible Classrooms (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Ganapathy, M., Singh, M. K. M., Kaur, S., & Kit, L. W. (2017). Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills via Teaching Practices. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature, 23(1).

Gibson, M. (2012). Integrating Higher-Order Thinking Skills Into The L2 Classroom. [Online]. Available from: http://dadun.unav.edu/bitstream/10171/27571/1/Gibson.pdf (accessed 28.06.17)

Good, T. L. and Brophy, J. E. (2003). Looking in Classrooms (9th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Habsah, H. (2006). Dimensions of Questioning: A Qualitative Study Of Current Classroom Practices in Malaysia. TESL-EJ, 10 (2).

Hart Research Associates. (2010). Raising The Bar: Employers’ Views On College Learning In The Wake Of The Economic Downturn. Washington, DC: Hart Research Associates.

http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/as-singapore-tops-world-malaysia-ranks-low-on-latest-oecd-maths-and-science

King, F.J., Goodson, L. and Rohani, F. (2012). Higher Order Thinking Skills: Definitions, Teaching Strategies, Assessment. http://www.cala.fsu.edu/files/higher_order_thinking_skills.pdf. Retrieved on 26February 2014.

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002).A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 212-218.

Leaman, L., and T. Flanagan. 2013. Authentic Role-Playing as Situated Learning: Reframing Teacher Education Methodology for Higher-Order Thinking. Studying Teacher Education. 9 (1). 45-61.

Leming, J.S. (1998). Some Critical Thoughts about the Teaching of Critical Thinking. The Social Studies, 89(2), 61-66.

Li, L. (2016). Integrating Thinking Skills In Foreign Language Learning: What Can We Learn From Teachers’ Perspectives?. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22, 273-288.

Mahathir Mohamed (1991). Malaysia: The Way Forward. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Center for Economic Research & Services, Malaysia Business Council.

Malay Mail Online (2015). As Singapore Tops World, Malaysia Ranks Low On Latest OECD Maths And Science Scores. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from

Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025. (2012). Preliminary Report, September 2012. Malaysia Ministry of Education.

Manzo, U. and Manzo, A.V. (2013) The Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory:

McDavitt, D. S. (1993). Teaching for Understanding: Attaining Higher Order Learning And Increased Achievement Through Experiential Instruction. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 374 093)).

Moore, K. D. (2000). Classroom teaching skills (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.

Myhill, D. and Dunkin, F. (2005). Questioning Learning. Language and Education, 19(5), 415-427.

Newmann, F. M. (1991). Higher order Thinking In The Teaching Of Social Studies: Connections Between Theory And Practice. In J. Voss, D. Perkins And J. Segal (Eds.) Informal Reasoning And Education, 381-400.

Ngwaru, J.M. (2011) Alternative Perspectives to English Teaching in Bilingual Contexts: A Case for Zimbabwe. Lambert Academic Publishing.

Pica, T. (2000). Tradition And Transition In English Language Teaching Methodology. System, 29, 1–18.

Preece, A. S. and Adila, J. 2014). Philosophical Inquiry in the Malaysian Educational System–Reality or Fantasy? Analytic Teaching And Philosophical Praxis, 35 (1), 26 -38.

Rahil, M., Zaidatol Akmaliah, L.P., Habibah, E. and Mohd Majid, K. (2004). The Incorporation of Thinking Skills in the School Curriculum. Kajian Malaysia. 12(2), 23-33.

Rajendran, N. (2001). The Teaching of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Malaysia Journal of Southeast Asian Education; 2(1); 42-65

Raudenbush, S.W., Rowan, B., and Cheong, Y. F. (1993) Higher Order Instructional Goals in Secondary Schools: Class, Teacher, and School Influences. American Educational Research Journal; 30(3), 523-553

Richards, L. (2005). Handling Qualitative Data. A practical Guide. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Shahini, G., and Riazi, A. M. (2010). A PBLT Approach To Teaching ESL Speaking, Writing, And Thinking Skills. ELT Journal, 65(2), 170-179.

Shirkhani, S.and Fahim, M. (2011). Enhancing Critical Thinking in Foreign Language Learners. Paper presented in 1st International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, May 5-7, 2011. Sarajevo.

Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur, Yuen Fook Chan, and Sarjit Kaur. "Instructional Practices In Teaching Literature: Observations Of ESL Classrooms in Malaysia." English Language Teaching; 3.2 (2010), 54.

Szabo, Z. & Schwartz, J. (2011). Learning Methods For Teacher Education: The Use Of Online Discussion To Improve Critical Thinking. Technology, Pedagofy and Education, 20(1). 79-94.

The Star Online (2015) Doing better in Pisa. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from http://www.thestar.com.my/news/education/2015/06/28/doing-better-in-pisa/

Twenty-First-Century Assessment Formats for Discovering Reading and Writing Needs - and Strengths. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties. 29(3). 231-251

Wang, S. and Wang, H. (2011).Teaching Higher Order Thinking In The Introductory MIS course: A Model-Directed Approach. Journal of Education For Business, 86, 208–213

Wilson, J.M. (2010) Using Words About Thinking: Content Analyses Of Chemistry Teachers' Classroom Talk, International Journal of Science Education, 21(10), 1067-1084

Wragg, E. C., & Brown, G. (2001). Questioning In The Secondary School. London: Routledge Falmer.

Yeung, S.S. (2015). Conception Of Teaching Higher Order Thinking: Perspectives of Chinese Teachersin Hong Kong. The Curriculum Journal, 26 (4), 553-578,

Zohar, A. (2006). The Nature and Development of Teachers' Metastrategic Knowledge in the Context of Teaching Higher Order Thinking. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15 (3), 331-377.

Zohar, A., Degani, A., & Vaaknin, E. (2001). Teachers’ Beliefs About Low-Achieving Students And Higher Order Thinking. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(4), 469-485.

Downloads

Published

2017-11-30